When General Ormsby Mitchel and his Third Division, Army of the Ohio, marched into North Alabama in April 1862, they initiated the first occupation of an inland region in the Deep South during the Civil War. As an occupying force, soldiers were expected to adhere to President Lincoln’s policy of conciliation, a conservative strategy based on the belief that most southerners were loyal to the Union. Confederate civilians in North Alabama not only rejected their occupiers’ conciliatory overtures, but they began sabotaging Union telegraph lines and trains, conducting guerrilla operations, and even verbally abusing troops. Confederates’ dogged resistance compelled Mitchel and his men to jettison conciliation in favor of a “hard war” approach to restoring Federal authority in the region. This occupation turned out to be the first of a handful of instances where Union soldiers occupied North Alabama.
Joseph W. Danielson, a history teacher at Des Moines Area Community College, is the author of War's Desolating Scourge, published in May by the University Press of Kansas.
For this and other books by the University Press of Kansas, see www.kansaspress.ku.edu